International courts and arbitrators are often called upon to resolve key disputes over interpretations of the contract. In order to determine its importance, these judicial bodies can examine for themselves the preparatory work for the negotiation and development of the treaty as well as the final contract signed. Since the accession of the twelve new Member States on 1 January 2008, the European and association agreements with these countries are no longer in force. They have been replaced by accession treaties. Only agreements with countries that have not yet joined the EU (i.e. Turkey) are still in force. The Commission also recalls that measures arising from the application of the precautionary principle may take the form of a decision to act or not to act, depending on the level of risk considered “acceptable”. The EU had applied this precautionary principle, for example, in the area of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), for example by adopting a moratorium on their marketing between 1999 and 2004. The end of the preamble and the beginning of the agreement itself are often referred to by the words “agreed as follows.” The Community has concluded specific agreements to facilitate trade. B trade, including the agreement with the European Economic Area (EEA) and to promote development through preferential access to European markets, for example the Lomé Convention signed with African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries. c) A declaration may also be an informal agreement on a minor issue. The Group of African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries was formed with the signing of the first Lomé Convention with the EEC in 1975. In 2002, it had 78 states (48 African states, 16 Caribbean states, 14 Pacific states) all of which had privileged trade relations with the EC.
The key principle of international refugee law, which states that no state brings a refugee back in any way to a country where his or her life or freedom could be threatened. The principle also includes non-refoulement at the border. Its provision is contained in Article 33 of the 1951 Convention on the Status of Refugees and provides the legal basis for the obligation of States to provide international protection to those in need. Article 33, paragraph 1, reads: “No State party may in any way deport or return a refugee to the borders of areas that would be threatened on the basis of race, religion, nationality, membership of a social group or political opinion.” This principle was approved in paragraph 13 of the conclusions of the Tampere European Council in October 1999. In light of the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights and Article 3 of the UN Convention against Torture and other cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment, Article 3 of the European Convention on the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms is also considered the basis of “non-refoulement obligations”.